Thomas Linley, o Jovem (1756-1778) – Music from The Tempest

Todos sabemos que o maior gênio do século XVII foi William Shakespeare, que a maior criatura do século XVIII foi Johann Sebastian Bach, que os gênios vencedores do século XIX foram Karl Marx e Charles Darwin, sobrando o século recém-findo para Sigmund Freud, o qual poderia analisar a discussão sobre Darwin, mais abaixo. Só espero que seu câncer não prejudique as risadas que certamente daria… Mas eu, um PQP ateu, cético e muito sarcástico, vou de Linley, o Jovem, The Younger, contrariamente a seu pai, The Elder, morto aos 22 anos e que parecia amar Shakespeare.

Este é um grande CD da Hyperion e nem vou perder tempo escrevendo ou traduzindo coisas. Coloco abaixo, de forma desorganizada, uma série de notícias biográficas e citações sobre o excelente Linley

A composer who “had he lived, would have been one of the greatest ornaments of the musical world” – W.A. Mozart.

Thomas Linley the Younger (1756-1778)

Early Years
Thomas Linley the younger (the ‘English Mozart’) was born at the Abbey Green, Bath on 7th May 1756 and was baptised at St. James’s Church, Bath on 11th June.

He was the third child and second son of the composer, harpsichordist and singing teacher Thomas Linley (1733-1795) and his wife Mary. The whole family was remarkably musically talented; besides Thomas junior, their daughters Elizabeth Ann, Mary and Maria all became accomplished singers and their son Samuel a notable oboist.

Although it was fashionable for musically gifted young children to be brought to the public’s attention in concert rooms, Thomas Linley the younger was, by any standards, one of the most musically prodigiously talented individuals ever to have been seen in England.

The composer Matthew Cooke (1761-1829), in his biographical account of Linley entitled ‘Reminiscences’ (published 1826) states that he, gave such early and strong passion for music, as determined his Father to fix him in that Profession; and accordingly, the stripling studied the Rudiments of Music under his father, …..and was, by the tuition of his Parent, perfectly grounded in both Theory and Practice. The Child’s assiduity, and the rapid progress he made, called forth his Father’s approbation.

As no other member of the Linley family played the violin it is assumed that the young composer learnt his skill from John Richards who was a prominent soloist and orchestral leader in Bath during the 1750s and 1760s.

The earliest known concert in which Linley played in was announced in Boddely’s Bath Journal of 25th July 1763, in which the following appeared, For the Benefit of Mr. Linley. At Loggan’s Room at the Hot Wells on the 29th Inst. Will be perform’d A Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Music. The Vocal Parts by Mr. Linley, Mr. Higgins and Master Linley. The First Violin by Mr Richards of Bath. End of the 1st Act a Concerto on the Violin by Master Linley, a child of seven years old. End of the 2nd Act an Elegy of Jackson’s by Mr. and Master Linley and Mr. Higgins.
In the same year the seven year old Linley commenced musical studies with William Boyce – lessons that were to continue over the next five years.

At the age of 10, with his sister Elizabeth Ann, he appeared at Covent Garden Opera House playing the part of Puck in the Masque The Fairy Favour by Thomas Hull. The Lloyds Evening Post of 3rd February reported the occasion Nor can enough be said of the little boy, who plays the part of Puck; his singing, playing on the violin, and dancing the hornpipe, are all beyond expectation, and discover extraordinary abilities in one, who must be considered a child.

In a letter to William Jackson dated 11th May 1768, the painter Thomas Gainsborough said, I have begun a large picture of Tommy Linley and Miss Linley and her Brother Thomas by Thomas Gainsborough c.1768 his sister………I suppose you know the Boy is bound for Italy at the first opportunity.
The 12 year old Linley left for Italy later the same year to study under the famous violinist Pietro Nardini (1722-1793).

1770 Meeting with Mozart

In April 1770 while still in Italy Linley met Mozart. They were exact contemporises and became firm friends, later regularly corresponding with one another.
On 21st April 1770 Mozart’s father, Leopold, writing to his wife Anna Maria said, In Florence we found a young Englishman who is a pupil of the famous violinist Nardini. This boy, who plays absolutely beautifully, and has Wolfgang’s height and age, came to the house of the learned poetess Sgr. Corelli, where we happened to be visiting on the recommendation of M. L’Augier. The two boys took turns performing all evening while constantly embracing one another. The next day, the little Englishman, a most charming boy, brought his violin to where we stayed and played all afternoon with Wolfgang accompanying him on the piano…….Little Thomaso accompanied us home and wept the bitterest tears because we were leaving the next day. The musical historian Charles Burney met Linley in Italy in the following September and wrote, The ‘Tommasino’, as he is called, and the little Mozart, are talked of all over Italy, as the most promising geniuses of this age.

Linley, now 15 years old, returned to England to perform in the 17712 Bath concert season. He was regularly leader of the orchestra or soloist at Bath from 1772 to 1776 and at Drury Lane from 1773 and 1778 where he played concertos between the acts of oratorios. He returned to his studies with Boyce.

On 8th September 1773 Linley’s first large-scale work (Let God Arise) was performed. This was at the Worcester Festival. Matthew Cooke stated that, This Production confirmed his Talents with the Public. Linley was now much in demand as a violinist – as reported by Cooke, ……his industry and perseverance made him indefatigable. He was One of the most eminent Violin Performers of the age; between the years 1771 and 1776 he composed no less than Twenty Concertos for the violin….Many of these were performed by him… Drury Lane ….and were received with the most unbounded applause. It was around this time that he wrote such remarkable works as The Song of Moses and incidental music for The Tempest and Sheridan’s The Duenna.

In 1776 Linley composed his magnificent Shakespeare Ode (Lyric Ode on the Fairies, Aerial Beings and Witches of Shakespeare). A writer in A Dictionary of Musicians in 1824 said, Neither Purcell nor Mozart ever gave stronger proofs of original genius than could be traced in this charming ode. The Morning Chronicle of 21st March 1776 gave a particularly enthusiastic account of a performance The composition must be allowed to be an extraordinary effort of genius in so young a man……..the fugue of the overture is masterly……..the song There in old Arden’s inmost shade…would not disgrace a Sacchini or Bach……….the oboe song in the second part…shews this young composer has the brilliancy and warmth of invention so peculiar attendant on the spring of life………….His merit, even at this early time of life, is certainly sufficient to challenge the warmest encouragement from the public, even though our Amateurs should not yet be brought to overlook the misfortune of his being – an Englishman.

The Morning Post of 16th March 1778 after a successful performance by Linley, also reveals an attitude of the general public towards English composers, …..the very warm applause he received last night proves that an English audience will give proper encouragement to true merit and genius, even though it is the production of their own country.

In July 1778 Linley went with his sisters to Grimsthorpe Castle, Lincolnshire as guests of the Duke of Ancaster and his family. On 5th August Linley went boating on the Castle lake with two friends. During a storm the boat overturned and, whilst attempting to swim ashore, the 22 year old Linley tragically drowned. It was reported in the Morning Chronicle on 11th August, On Wednesday last Mr. Thomas Linley……fell into a lake belonging to his Grace the Duke of Ancaster…..and was unfortunately drowned; he remained under water full forty minutes, so that every effort made to restore him to life proved ineffectual. This accident has deprived the profession to which he belonged of one its principal ornaments, and society of a very accomplished and valuable member.

Linley was buried on 11th August 1778 at Edenham Parish Church.

His sisters Maria, Mary and Elizabeth Ann died of consumption in 1784, 1787 and 1792 respectively and his brother Samuel drowned in 1795. Thomas Linley senior died in November of the same year, it was said at the time, of a broken heart.

‘Linley was a true genius’ (Mozart, 1784)
‘An outstanding disc in a trail-blazing series: highly recommended’ (BBC Music Magazine)
‘The irresistible music will compel you to acquire this recording’ (Early Music Review)
‘All parties sound as if they love every moment of this absorbing and enjoyable programme’ (American Record Guide)
‘Le programme est d’une parfaite cohérence et magistralement interpreté’ (Répertoire, France)
‘Il y a longtemps que le disque ne nous avait révélé un talent méconnu aussi brillant et attachant’ (Diapason, France)
‘…This collection of cantatas and theater music is simply stunning—rarely do we hear a composer of that age who even comes close to what Mozart was doing, but if any can make that claim, Linley certainly can… the freshness and invention—will strike you over and over…These period performances are sterling in concept and execution, and Hyperion’s midprice Helios label makes them almost irresistible’ (Audiophile, USA)

Thomas Linley The Younger – Music From The Tempest

Music for The Tempest 1777 [23’56]
1. Arise! ye spirits of the storm [5’56] SATB chorus, 2 trumpets, timpani, 2 horns, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, strings and continuo
2. O bid your faithful Ariel fly [4’42] soprano, oboe, strings and continuo
3. Come unto these yellow sands [4’00] soprano, oboe, strings and continuo
4. Hark, hark, the watch-dogs bark [0’59] SATB chorus, 2 horns, timpani, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, strings and continuo
5. While you here do sleeping lie [1’57] SATB chorus, 2 horns, timpani, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons. strings and continuo
6. Ere you can say ‘Come’ and ‘Go’ [2’53] soprano, 2 flutes, strings and continuo

7. THOMAS ARNE Where the bee sucks, there lurk I [2’47]
the chorus arranged by Thomas Linley from a glee by William Jackson (1730-1803) – soprano, SATB chorus, flute, 2 horns, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, strings and continuo

Overture to The Duenna 1775 [5’33]
2 horns, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, strings and continuo
8. Allegro [2’25]
9. Adagio [1’22]
10. Rondeau (Allegro) [1’54]

In Yonder Grove 1773 [13’44]
cantata, soprano, 2 horns, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, cello solo, strings and continuo
11. Recitative: In yonder grove [1’40]
12. Air (Largo andante): If thy too-cruel bow be bent [3’10]
13. Recitative: Thus sunk in deep distress [0’33]
14. March [1’03]
15. Recitative: As when the sun [0’50]
16. Air: Tune, Philomel [6’23]

Ye nymphs of Albion’s beauty-blooming isle [12’03]
cantata, soprano, horn solo, oboe solo, strings and continuo
17. Recitative: Ye nymphs of Albion’s beauty-blooming isle [1’14]
18. Air (Largo): Wrapt close from harm [3’58]
19. Recitative: Thus young Emira [0’44]
20. Air (Molto allegro): Fly, Damon, to yon secret grove [6’04]

Daughter of Heav’n, fair art thou! (Darthula) [17’00]
cantata, soprano, 2 horns, strings and continuo
21. Recitative: Daughter of Heav’n, fair art thou! [1’02]
22. Air (Andante): But why dost thou retire? [1’31]
23. Recitative: Thus sung Darthula [1’06]
24. Air (Maestoso allegro: My arm shall lift the spear [5’48]
25. Recitative: He clothed his limbs in steel [1’39]
26. Air (Rondeau): When in thy beauty wilt thou rise [4’48]
27. Arioso (Adagio): Retire, O Sun [1’01]

Julia Gooding, soprano
Paul Goodwin, oboe
The Parley of Instruments Baroque Orchestra and Choir
Paul Nicholson, harpsichord and conductor



9 comments / Add your comment below

  1. Parabenizo o post, e ressalto que acho que o “Where the bee sucks, there lurk I” não pertence à Música para Tempestade.


  2. PQP,

    Não sei como te mandar uma mensagem, então vai ser por aqui mesmo. Eu gostaria de te perguntar se algum dia desses você poderia postar obras do ERNESTO NAZARETH, eu estou procurando em muitos blogs, mas sem sucesso. Eu gosto muito deste site/blog, entro todos os dias, então fica ai a sujestão.


  3. Caro PQP:

    eu incluiria, entre os grandes gênios do século XIX, a distinta figura de Herr Nietzsche, o filósofo-músico.
    Lembremos que, já no século XX, Freud espantava-se com o acerto das intuições de Nietzsche sobre o psiquismo.


  4. Marx gênio ? do que ? da lâmpada ?
    Qualquer estudante sério de filosofia sabe que ele foi o maior charlatão intelecual do século XiX . Era tão bom charlatão que engana incautos até hoje. Para quem não acredita no que digo eu recomendo, só para começar, a leitura do capítulo dedicado a ele no célebre livro “Os Intelectuais ” , de Paul Johnson.

  5. Realmente Paul Johnson desmoraliza MARX , dizendo inclusive que ele fraudou dados da fábrica do pai de Engels, mas o principal problema que ele detecta usando raciocínio logistico de POPPER é que Marx inverte as coisas e por isso seus estudos perderam a cientificidade;segundo ele, e é verdade, Marx primeiro arruma a sua teoria e depois vai buscar dados fraudados para corroborá-la;Mas a questão de Marx é o seu messianismo, aquela idéia de salvar o mundo, que no fundo é religiosa, trazida de sua origem judaico-cristã; no final da vida Marx quer dar caráter cientificista às suas teorias tentando largar de mão do messianismo inicial que o empurrou,assim escreve O CAPITAL que não foi terminado e na verdade virou uma bagunça até na montagem dos capítulos. Bom , Marx usa do raciocínio de que a economia dirigida seria mais eficiente do que a liberalizada , aparentemente sem paixões ideológicas aqui , apenas por achá-la mais eficiente, usou para isso dados errados do então capitalismo iniciante,deu com os burros n’agua.
    Mas Marx também achava que o capitalismo tinha que se desenvolver até o final para que aparecesse condições para o socialismo , primeira etapa do verdadeiro comunismo, etapa final em que inclusive o homem estaria em estágios tão avançados que sobrariam horas de lazer para todos e inclusive poderíamos dispensar o estado, ou seja na verdade Marx queria o céu,não tinha nada de científico, escondia no fundo, seu messianismo.
    Mas, e sempre tem um mas, ele, como disse também Johnson , escrevia muito bem e era eloquente e agora digo eu, a crítica de MARX ao capitalismo era pertinente e queiram ou não ele ajudou a aperfeiçoar este sistema com as críticas dos seus seguidores,erraram e não saber do quanto o capitalismo é eficiente e capaz de se transformar, além do mais o sistema liberal-capitalista é o que permite maior justiça ao homem , é o caminho mais curto para se acabar com a pobreza e o mais justo por seu caráter meritório;prestem atenção quando digo Liberal-capitalismo;um diz respeito ao sistema de contrato, através de leis[liberalismo],que ditam nossa convivência, que vieram do iluminismo inglês[Locke e cia] e não dos Jacobinos sanguinários franceses, que tinham aquele lema de balela conhecido[ igualdade, fraternidade…] e que mataram milhões; o outro diz respeito ao sistema econômico[capitalismo] que é o mais eficiente para se acabar com a pobreza;Marx provavelmente vibraria com a eficiência do sistema capitalista atual;pragmático que era.Mas acho devemos a Marx a crítica ao capitalismo que permitiu seu aperfeiçoamento!
    Afinal de contas, militei, mais ou menos,no partido ,uns quinze anos, contando o período Trotskista.

    OH Jacobino, sei não , eu como ex-marxista, acho que PQP tem uma certa simpatia ao barbudo sinto o cheiro no ar , parece ter o perfil dos ”velhos” marxistas,muito cultos, abrangentes, coisas do tempo antigo, hoje os MARCHISTAS[eheheh] nunca leram nem mesmo gibi, acho que vem chumbo…eheheh….

  6. Seu P.Q.P., tens razão: na quase sempre batatológica história da Música inglesa, Thomas Linley the younger ganha vulto. Sua música é belíssima, com momentos sublimes. Morto aos 22 anos! Que brevidade! Precisamos ouvir melhor este gentleman.

    Imaginem-se as sessões com Mozart! Alguém fotografou a cena:

    Temos ele em retrato de Gainsborough:
    com Mammy, aos 12:
    e mais detalhes e um retrato aqui:

  7. What a wonderful blog with very hard to find music. I recently discovered the genius of Thomas Linley and I’m very curious to listen to this CD. Unfortunately the links are dead. Would it be possible to re-upload them?
    Thank you so much.

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